„Imagination creates reality” (Richard Wagner)
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Lawful Interception

The dawn of the 21st Century welcomes us with global social challenges and with an amazing development of the information technologies. Warranting the security of a nation as well as actively serving its vital interests require the capability of monitoring the public telecommunications networks and other selected information sources by a modern and future proof system allocated to and only to the Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA) authorized by national law. The next Figure introduces the whole telecommunications environment in respect of tasks belonging to the organizations of national LEAs Hungarocom’s products cover all levels of this special hierarchy.

lawful interception
The Secure Transmisson Devices can be found under menu Network Devices

Information Processing

Information processing systems have been developed to manage, store, archive and process information deriving from the telecommunications network and premises surveillance devices (peripherals). These centralized systems are scalable from low capacity till nationwide large capacity systems. Individual Information Processing Systems allow the use of peripheral devices as stand-alone units without connecting them to centralized systems. Centralized Information Processing Systems are very complex and can be specialized according to their task to assure more efficiency. Mediation Devices are the gateways between the individual telecommunications systems and the centralized information processing systems.
Centralized Information Processing Systems can be formed in a function oriented way separately, but can advantageously be used as integrated systems depending on the size of the networks and complexity of tasks, Complex Monitoring and Interception System (CMS) can be used as an integrated system for interception of medias deriving from the telecommunications network and peripherals along the network. Mobile Object Tracking System (CMS-OT) is used for tracking and monitoring mobile telephone sets. Vehicle Tracking System (CMS-VT) is used for follow up and track positions of target vehicles.

For the individual surveillance devices (peripherals) special handling program on PC for the remote operation of AP peripherals have been developed. The program handles all realized features of the applied peripheral. 
peripherals
The handling software communicates with the remote unit by means of an IP connection. It controls the peripheral and receives the voice packets with UDP protocol, vendor specific framing and encryption on the other hand. The encryption key is not constant it appears randomly at each log-in. As an example a menu of a client application is shown on the figure below.

client application

There is a version of the program restricted for the playback of the recording only which can be used in case when the records must be available for persons who have access to the system occasionally. This version differs from the complete version in the fact that only playback functionality is available restricted to the local playback. (e.g. files from remote SD cards can not be queried). Th surfaces are the same as the one in the complete version aside from this limitation. At the settings of the security data the difference is that in case of playback functionality the rights for other activities beyond the local playback are not available. The playback only program uses the security data file taken over from the full version, in this case the users can login with the conventional names and passwords, but the playback functionalities are available only.
Lawful Interception means a wide co-operation by network operators (NWO), access providers (AP), service providers (SvP), and the law enforcement and state security agencies (LEA). The generic Handover Interface adopts a three-port structure such that administrative information (HI1), Intercept Related Information (HI2) and the Content of Communication (HI3) are logically separated. The next Figure shows a block diagram with the relevant entities for Lawful Interception (LI).

Lawful Interception

The function of the mediation device is the basic communication with the relevant connected networks in order to collect information and providing administration for Lawful Interception purposes. The different networks (e.g. PSTN, PLMN) use different procedures and signalling to provide these functions. The mediation device serves for converting and transmitting the necessary information in a universal form and keeping the connection with the relevant control and switching parts of the intercepted networks. The next Figure shows the location of the mediation device in the network.

location of the mediation device
Complex Monitoring and Interception System CMS is for recording processing and archiving voice, video and internet communications for Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA). The applied technology and the design philosophy make CMS stand out as an universal and versatile monitoring system. It is universal as it applies the latest, most reliable hardware and software components. It is also national, as it is carefully designed to serve best a particular national system of user structure. The information gained from the telecommunications network is also specific to the particular nation. The efficient workflow of CMS is custom tailored for the organizational framework and for the target structures of the user law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

CMS is capable of intercepting various kind of communication information such as:
  • voice
  • fax and SMS
  • internet
  • VoIP
  • Data
  • transfer of location (positioning data of mobile subscribers)
  • video streams (IP video, cameras, UMTS video)

CMS can access the following telecommunication networks for interception:
  • Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN)
  • Public Mobile Telephone Networks (PLMN)
  • other cellular networks (e.g. TETRA)
  • data transmission networks
  • VoIP networks

Communications monitoring means in a broader sense the monitoring of communications content (video, audio, data) together with its interception related information. The general concept of communications monitoring contains not only monitoring of communications via the different telecom networks but it also involves the concept of premises-surveillance. Legacy telephone exchanges did not contain internal interception function (IIF). It means that communications monitoring is possible only by using special taps connected to the a,b wires of the monitored subscriber inside or outside the telephone exchanges. Modern digital exchanges and up-to-date new generation switches contain internal interception function with well defined interfaces. The location of mediation function is country dependent. It can belong to the LEA functionality but it some case network operators can be obliged by law to provide this function. CMS provides mediation solutions also for PSTN domain from legacy telephone exchanges till next generation networks, for PLMN domain: 2G, 3G networks. Premises surveillance function uses audio and video peripherals as well as high speed taps for IP based networks. The core function of CMS is commonly used for other special-purpose systems also like vehicle location (CMS-VT) and mobile object location (CMS-OT) systems. The next figure introduces the basic system structure. The upper part of the diagram shows the devices for information storage and processing the so called CMS core functions.
CMS core functions

The CMS core consists of several computers with server functions and dedicated clients (terminals) with defined functions.
  • Media collecting/storage servers are for reception of IP packets, store the audio and video informations on a highly reliable storage media. There is also possible to duplicate these servers. The servers are able to store Tbytes of information.
  • The Database/Application server is for the operation of databases handling the stored communications information, furthermore for the different software providing different functions.
  • The Operator terminals are „thick” clients.
  • The archiving and exporting server is for archiving copying recorded communication information according to the requirements of the users.

To the core of CMS the Mediation Devices and the peripherals for premises surveillance are connected for lawful interception. For the operators of the system both for the system managers and operators and easy-to-handle graphical interface (GUI) is provided.
Mobile object tracking is applicable for all kind of UE (User Equipment) in the GSM network because the system is based on positioning by means of the GSM infrastructure. The system is a so-called multi-organization system, which means that the same system can serve many organizations independently from each other. The activity of an organization is unreachable by another one however the same hardware and software is used. The location data of the targets are provided by the Mobile Position Server (MPS) of the GSM operators. These coordinates of the position of the targets, velocity etc. are stored on the Data Base Server of the CMS-OT system. This server also provides the GIS functions to display the position data on a map. The Data Base Server can directly serve the information processing workstations but if a higher number of workstation shall be served (e.g. >50) an independent Client Handling Server is used and the position data can be reached via this server. The next figure shows the general block diagram of the system.
Mobile object tracking
Vehicle tracking system Vehicles involved in the tracking function are provided with GPS vehicle tracker units. The tracker is installed with GPS receiver unit and sends messages to the CMS Core via the mobile network. These data contain the geographic position, speed status etc. of the tracked vehicle. The applications and the mapping run on the CMS Core. The processing of the information is done by the workstations, which can be located remotely as well. The general set up of the CMS-VT system is introduced in the next Figure.


Surveillance Devices (peripherals)

Surveillance devices, or peripherals belonging to this group have been developed for premises surveillance (voice), monitoring of E1 communications trunk and monitoring of IP connections (e.g. VoIP telephony). These devices can be used as standalone tools, but they can also be connected via WANs, or internet to centralized information processing systems.

„MinNie” miniature voice recorder with IP connection
(product code: AP-2SD-1IP-4M2L)

Hungarocom’s audio peripheral device (AP-) family
general description

The Hungarocom’s audio peripheral device family covers wide area of audio recording, environment monitoring and surveillance tasks where small or special devices are needed. These devices consist of a core circuit module which is similar in all configuration and there are some variable option (storage, remote connection, input interface etc.). The core module contains an ultralow power DSP cpu, flash memory, clock/calendar.

„MinNie” (AP-2SD-1IP-4M2L) miniature voice recorder
key features

MinNie

The „MinNie” nick named device is a small voice recorder unit with four microphone and two symmetrical line inputs. The direct IP connection facility makes it possible to listen remotely in real time. Stereo recording and the selectable microphone pairs provide optimal records for offline audio processing applications (i.e. noise reduction).

The desired application area covers the tasks when the recording device must be built in a small space and online listening is required. The local recording media is micro SD/SDHC card which ensures high recording capacity.Its low power consumption (60mA/12V) also enables accumulator powered operation (typically the device can be hidden into a car operating from its accumulator).

If the IP connection is available it can transmit the voice streams to a remote PC. In this situation powering is possible remotely through the Ethernet cable (power over Ethernet feature). If remote connection is used, recording is also possible with the dedicated windows application. Local (SD card) and remote (PC) recording can have different settings. For example: only narrow band IP connection is available so PC recording is configured 8KHz sampling, A-law coding (which requires about 64Kbps bandwidth). It is enough for getting information quickly. But one need higher quality records after that, so local SD recording can be configured 24 kHz sampling and 16 bit linear coding which provides an excellent quality speech recording.

Despite of the small size the „MinNie” provides high quality of speech recording and offers a wide variety of operation modes and special features.

Technical parameters

  • Recording modes: Mono recording with six selectable inputs, two independent mono recordings (dual recorder) with three selectable inputs both, stereo recording with four selectable stereo perspective (in case of applying four microphone). In dual recording mode all the voice parameters (sampling, coding, VOX, AGC can be configured independently).
  • Storage media: Micro SD cards, removable. Two micro SD slots are available on the device.
  • File system: Standard FAT32.
  • Recording destination: recording is possible to local SD cards or directly to the remote PC’s hard disk.
  • Storage fill up handling: recording until SD card(s) is(are) full or circular recording (older files are deleted automatically in case of reaching card capacity). If only one of the SD cards are full the device continues recording into the other SD card.
  • Recording format: Encrypted with proprietary algorithm, protected against manipulation. The voice and some related information (recording configuration parameters, duration, start/stop time, assigned names to the inputs etc.) are stored in the same encrypted file.
  • Recording quality: Configurable 8Khz, 16KHz or 24KHz sampling rate, 8 bit A-law or 16 bit linear coding (24KHz with 16 bit coding gives very high quality speech recording).
  • Recording time: In case of the best 24KHz/16 bit / stereo quality with two 16GB SDHC card 92 hours continuous speech can be recorded. In case of 8KHz / 16 bit / mono mode 1100 hours continuous speech can be stored.
  • Recording start/stop modes: SD recording can be continuous and voice activity (VOX) controlled. SD recording also can be triggered by disconnection of the remote PC. Remote PC recording can be controlled by the client application manually or can be controlled by voice activity detector.
  • Inputs: Four independent electret microphone inputs (preferred types: Knowles EA and FG series) and two balanced line inputs.
  • Input gain: From microphone inputs: 30dB..80dB / -0dB..50dB can be controlled online. From line inputs: 0dB..-50dB can be controlled online.
  • Extra features: configurable voice activity detector (VOX) and automatic gain control (AGC), HP filter against low frequency noise. The voice records also contain the recorder unique MAC address to identify the device the file was recorded with.
  • Control/Playback: Possible with dedicated client software (Windows XP, Windows 7, Vista supported). Encrypted format can be converted and exported into standard WAV format. There is wide variety of control functions. Most of the controlling features also available during active recording.
  • Mechanical dimensions: 40mm x 80mm x 18,5 mm.
  • Operation voltage: 9,6V..18V DC.
  • Powering modes: remote adapter powering over Ethernet line or accumulator powering.
  • Absolute maximum active operation current: 12V/54mA in standalone mode, 12V/70mA with IP connection.
  • Supported SD cards: 1GB, 2GB micro SD or 4GB, 8GB, 16GB micro SDHC cards.
  • Package content: AP-2SD-1IP-4M2L recording device, power adapter (230V/12V), Ethernet-power connector, two miniature microphones, two 16GB SD cards, windows software for playback and control, documentation.

„MicKey” miniature stereo microphone voice recorder
(product code: AP-1SD-0-2M)

Hungarocom’s audio peripheral device family
general description

The Hungarocom’s audio peripheral device family covers wide area of audio recording, environment monitoring and surveillance tasks where small or special devices are needed. These devices are consists of a core circuit module which is similar in all configuration and there are some variable option (storage, remote connection, input interfaces etc.). The core module contains an ultra-low power DSP cpu, flash memory, clock/calendar.

„MicKey” (AP-1SD-0-2M) miniature stereo voice recorder
key features

MicKey

The „MicKey” nick named device is a very small and thin voice recorder unit with two microphone input. The desired application area covers the tasks when the recording device must be put in a very small space (i.e. book cover, in a pocket ..etc). The very low power consumption makes it possible to apply small size accumulator for operation as well. The recording media is micro SD/SDHC card which ensures high recording capacity. When recording task finished the SD card can be removed and put in a card reader and the records can be listened in a convenient way with a dedicated Windows application.

Despite of the small size the „MicKey” provides high quality of speech recording and offers a wide variety of operation modes and special features.

Technical parameters

  • Recording modes: Mono recording with a selected input, two independent mono recordings (dual recorder) or stereo recording. In dual recording mode all the voice parameters (sampling, coding, VOX, AGC can be configured independently).
  • Storage media: Micro SD card, removable.
  • File system: Standard FAT32.
  • Recording format: Encrypted with proprietary algorithm, protected against manipulation. The voice and some related information (recording configuration parameters, duration, start/stop time, assigned names to the inputs, etc.) are stored in the same encrypted file.
  • Recording quality: Configurable 8Khz, 16KHz or 24KHz sampling rate, 8 bit A-law or 16 bit linear coding (24KHz with 16 bit coding gives very high quality speech recording).
  • Recording time: In case of the best 24KHz/16 bit / stereo quality with 16GB SDHC card 46 hours continuous speech can be recorded. In case of 8KHz / 16 bit / mono mode 550 hours continuous speech can be stored (such a long time of operation with accumulator, periodic charging is required).
  • Recording start/stop modes: one push button controlled start / stop, timer start on preconfigured date-time, unconditional continuous recording on power-up. All modes can be combined with a configurable VOX detector.
  • Storage fill up handling: recording until SD card is full or circular recording (older files are deleted automatically in case of reaching card capacity).
  • Inputs: two independent electret microphone inputs (preferred types: Knowles EA and FG series).
  • Input sensitivity: -30dBm..-80dBm can be configured.
  • Extra features: configurable voice activity detector (VOX) and automatic gain control (AGC), unique ID is burn into all devices. The voice records also contain the recorder unique ID.
  • Control/Playback: Possible with dedicated playback software (Windows XP, Windows 7, Vista supported). Encrypted format can be converted and exported into standard WAV format.
  • Configuring:Configuration file can be located on the SD card, (firmware upgrade is also possible from the SD card).
  • Operation: Accumulator - with a 500mAh LiPo accumulator about 15 hour continuous speech can be recorded (with a minimum supported capacity of 150mA accumulator it is about 5 hours). Adapter powered mode is used when very long time recording is needed (If accumulator is also connected, periodic charging is possible without disturbing the recording function).
  • Mechanical dimensions: 33mm*32mm.
  • Supported accumulators: 150mAh or higher capacity LiPo accumulator with or without thermal point, the device is equipped with on-board full accumulator management circuit.
  • Charger/operational adapter: 4.8V-6V (Nominal 5V) minimum 250mA (USB charging cable is also available).
  • Max. charging current: 170mA (can be changed with an on-board resistor value)
  • Absolute maximum active operation current: 31mA (with stereo, 16 bit, 24 Khz sampling).
  • Standby current: <3,5 μA
  • Supported SD cards: 1GB, 2GB micro SD or 4GB, 8GB, 16GB micro SDHC cards.
  • Package content: AP-1SD-0-2M recording device, charging power adapter (230V/5V), USB charging cable, two miniature microphones, 4GB SDHC card, windows software for playback and configuration, documentation.
The aim is to monitor communications of selected targets in case of VoIP telephony, IP communications, filtered by user name, MAC address, IP address etc. It is also possible to rebuild the communications content in case of known protocols (FTP, e-mail etc.). For advance monitoring the filtering condition can be any type of pre-selected pattern. If this pattern occurs in the IP stream the equipment filters out the relevant communications content with its CDR. The basic principle of IP monitoring is shown in the next Figure.
IP monitoring

The equipment can be used on different levels of the network hierarchy: access, or aggregation (backbone) level. To reach the streams two methods may be used. In the first case the networking components like switches routers can have the so-called mirroring feature which means that the whole communications via this very device are mirrored to another port. Hungarocom’s IP monitoring device is connected to the mirrored port in this case. If the networking components do not assures the mirroring facilities a „tap” device is used which assure the total network continuity but beside this the communications streams are available for the monitoring device.

The IP monitoring device provides the protocol filtering. The applied hardware tool depends on the communications speed of the monitored network level.

After the pre-filtering and mediation functionality a hand over interface is provided which can be connected to an existing LEA device, or to Hungarocom’s CMS core system. This system serves for data processing storage and archiving of the received information. The operator terminals connected to the core system handle the data processing. For special applications e.g. special decoding needs or protocols optional servers can be provided.

VoIP monitoring

Complete solution for monitoring SIP, SIP-T, H.232, H.248, RTP protocols. The device is also able to record, store and playback the voice content of a VoIP call. If the customer has a previously installed monitoring centre facility a suitable mediation device (in other words: Lawful Interception Gateway function) for VoIP monitoring can also be offered which presents the monitored and filtered VoIP calls on a defined IP based handover interface (HI1, HI2, HI3). Note, that if the VoIP communication applies E2E encryption – depending the strength of the encryption algorithm – in some cases it is inevitable to interwork with the VoIP service provider for unlock the encrypted voice streams (i.e. Skype communication).
VOIP monitoring

„PcmMon” two channel E1 line monitoring and recording equipment (Product code: CYP-201-PCMMON)

Hungarocom’s CYPCOM equipment family
general description

The Hungarocom’s CYPCOM equipment family can offer different functions on, or between E1 and IP lines like bridge, media converter, E1 over IP, IP over E1, with encryption and different monitoring recording functions. These functions are based on two types of application specific core hardware units:
  • CYPCOM-200 hardware has eight Ethernet interfaces and two E1 PCM interfaces (RJ-45)
  • CYPCOM-201 hardware has two Ethernet interfaces and four E1 PCM interfaces (RJ-45)

The common parameters of both versions are: 230V or 48V (12V optional) operation, 1 unit high standard rack construction, high protected equipment box with key (no screws outside), high speed low power consumption core module, upgradable firmware, physical alarm contacts. There are 75/120 ohm or high impedance E1 connections. Central remote management is available for all applications.

Based on these flexible core hardware modules Hungarocom provides FoD (Function on Demand) service. That means, in case of customer’s special function or feature requirements Hungarocom can develop the unique features within short time.

„PcmMon” key features

The „PcmMon” equipment is developed for intelligent monitoring of E1 lines. Based on Hungarocom’s CYPCOM-201 core hardware, the equipment has four E1 inputs (PCM Rx). To monitor one E1 line requires two E1 Rx channels, so the hardware can monitor two full duplex E1 PCM lines. E1 Rx lines connect to the E1 lines with high impedance without disturbing the original traffic. The received E1 signal is analysed and processed by the CYPCOM-201’s internal CPU in real time (HDLC frames, DSS1, QSIG, SS7 signalling, Voice channels, DTMF reception are provided). The processed traffic than stored on the built in 2,5” HDD (or SSD).

If the monitored PCM uses DSS1, QSIG, or SS7 signalling the PcmMon detects the call sessions and records the voice channels with related CDRs (communications recording function).

A complex Windows based client application is available to display the stored information. There is some optional off-line post processing function available in the client application (i.e. FAX decoding). Online channel monitoring is also supported from the client application.
CYPCOM-201 frontCYPCOM-201 back


Front panel connectors (small enclosure):

front panel connectors (small enclosure)


Front panel connectors (standard rack enclosure):

front panel connectors (standard rack enclosure)


Technical parameters

  • Number of full duplex E1 lines monitored simultaneously: 2
  • Physical connection: High impedance
  • PCM modes: PCM 30, PCM31, unframed, CRC4 and AMI/HDB3 coding supported.
  • Real time handled protocols and signals: HDLC, DSS1, QSIG, SS7, DTMF.
  • Voice channel recording: all sessions with attached CDRs (CDRs based on DSS1, QSIG or SS7 and in band DTMF)
  • Recording method: records are encrypted and protected against manipulation. Every records and stored events contain exact time stamp.
  • Internal storage capacity: max. 2x1TB 2,5” HDD (or max. 2x500GB SSD).
  • Two alarm contacts for minor and mayor alarms.
  • Operation voltage: 230V with external adapter, 48V (or optionally 12V) without external adapter.
  • Client application features: display recorded data, voice record playback and export to standard WAV file. Convenient search functions.
  • Optional off-line processing feature: FAX communication decoding.
  • Size: standard rack enclosure: 483x185x44 mm; small enclosure: 266x189x29,5 mm.
  • Package content: CYP-201-PCMMON equipment, power adapter, PCM cables and passive TAPs, software, documentation.